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Checkbox Validation in Javascript

Deepak Dec 07, 2023

In this article, we will go through validations for checkbox in following a step-by-step approach

  • Single checkbox validation in javascript How to make group checkbox mandatory
  • Multiple checkboxes at least n required

Let's dive into the following sample code example that demonstrates the above-mentioned steps to cover a current topic about checkbox validation in javascript

Single checkbox validation in javascript

Let's go through the below-mentioned code block to understand single checkbox validation:

Html Form

<form name="demo" method="POST" onsubmit="return validateForm(this);">
    <div id="msg"> </div>
    <div> Email <input type="text" name="email" value=""></div>    
    <div><input type="checkbox" name="terms"> I accept the Terms </div>
    <div><input type="submit" name="submit" value="SignUp"></div>

Javascript Validation Code for checkbox:

    function validateForm(form) {

        var isChecked = form.terms.checked;
        if (!isChecked) {
            document.getElementById("msg").innerHTML = "Please Accept Terms";
            return false;
        return true;

Here is What code means:

  • Let's suppose we have a SignUp form containing the terms checkbox and email text box.
  • Submit event triggers once we submit our form. We have attached a form validation method against the submit event handler. It means if the calling method validateForm returns true then the form will submit otherwise it won't submit.
  • Here a checkbox checked properly is used to check whether a checkbox is checked or not. Therefore form.terms.checked will return true if the checkbox is checked else returns false.
  • Prompting validation message to user if term checkbox is not checked by displaying error message within div with id as msg with the help of code document.getElementById("msg").innerHTML = "Please Accept Terms";

How to make group checkbox mandatory?

Here a group of checkboxes means a collection of single Checkboxes. Let's suppose we have formed with a group of different departments as below

<form name="department" method="POST" onsubmit="return validateForm(this);">
    <div id="msg"> </div>
        <input type="checkbox" name="department[]" value="IT"> IT 
        <input type="checkbox" name="department[]" value="Finance"> Finance 
        <input type="checkbox" name="department[]" value="HR"> HR 
        <input type="checkbox" name="department[]" value="Legal"> Legal 
    <div><input type="submit" name="submit" value="SignUp"></div>

Now, We won't allow users to submit forms without providing department input. Following javascript multiple checkbox code help to avoid empty checkbox form submission.

Validation code:

    function validateForm(form) {

        var departmentGroup =  document.getElementsByName("department[]");

        var checkedDepartment = 0
        for (var i = 0; i < departmentGroup.length; i++) {
            if (departmentGroup[i].checked) {

        if (checkedDepartment == 0) {
            document.getElementById("msg").innerHTML = "Department is required field!";
            return false;
        return true;

Code Explanation:

  • First, find the length of the group of department checkboxes.
  • we can use the checked attribute to ensure whether the checkbox is checked or not. Therefore the departmentGroup[0] in the above code represents the first checkbox and departmentGroup[1] represents seconds and so on. Code departmentGroup[0].checked return true if checked otherwise return false.
  • Based on concepts as described in step 2 we can check for n number of checkboxes by looping through until the length of multiple checkboxes.
  • Variable checkedDepartment is incremented for each checked checkbox. checkedDepartment will be 0 if none is checked.
  • Display error message to user once checkedDepartment is 0.

Multiple checkboxes at least N required

There can be a scenario where we want users to choose

  • multiple checkboxes at least 1
  • multiple checkboxes at least 2
  • multiple checkboxes at least N

In such a case, we will use the same previously explained validation code. Suppose in the previous example we need the user to select at least 2 checkboxes.

Just we need to change the alert condition as below

  if (checkedDepartment < 2) {
            document.getElementById("msg").innerHTML = "At Least two Department should be chosen";
            return false;

In such a way we can make a mandatory selection for N number as well

Brain Exercise

Find the missing digit

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